Many owners of fluffy (or not so) pets tend to believe that the health of the cat can be judged by the state of the nose. In addition, some mistakenly believe that a dry, hot nose indicates the presence of fever in the animal.
But this opinion is somewhat exaggerated. You can only learn about the increase in temperature by measuring it in the usual way for animals .
Ideally, the cat’s nose should be moist and cool. Sometimes during sleep or immediately after it, the nose may be slightly dry and warm (hot) to the touch. This is not some kind of pathology and does not mean a sick condition of the pet. A dry and hot nose should cause concern only if it lasts a long time, while the cat is very depressed, inactive, does not eat well and lies a lot. Very often, a nose that remains dry for a long time may indicate a fever and severe dehydration of the pet's body.
Like any living creature, a cat is subject to a number of diseases, one way or another related to the nose. Most often, from the "nose diseases" of cats there are:
- Rhinitis (runny nose):
- ordinary runny nose against the background of colds;
- runny nose caused by a bacterial, viral, fungal infection;
- allergic rhinitis.
- Benign and malignant neoplasms in the nasal passages or sinuses.
- The presence of foreign bodies in the nasal passages.
- Injury to the nose.
Causes of the common cold
To understand that something is wrong with the cat’s nose is possible only by the presence of persistent, not passing independently bleeding, which can be watery, thick, purulent, and even with an admixture of blood. Among the main causes of nasal diseases are the following:
- The most common cause of rhinitis is a common cold (a sharp change in temperature, a draft, drinking cold water, etc.).
- A significant role is played by chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. Chemical and mechanical factors include inhalation of harmful gases, dust, too hot air or hot steam.
- Irritation of the nasal mucosa by allergens (pollen, perfumes and other chemical agents).
- Autoinfections. Microflora is constantly located on the nasal mucosa of cats, which, with a decrease in the general resistance of the body (immunity), takes pathogenic properties against the background of hypothermia. In this case, the introduction of painful microbes into the mucous membrane, which causes its inflammation.
- Infectious diseases of various nature - herpes virus (viral rhinotracheitis) or calcivirus infection, chlamydia and other pathogenic biological agents.
- The cause of sinusitis, as a rule, is getting into the maxillary sinus of the infection by continuation (complication of rhinitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis or dental caries). Sometimes sinusitis can occur as a result of wounds of the maxillary cavity or with malignant tumors.
The presence of certain symptoms depends on the underlying disease and the severity of its course. Rhinitis is most often manifested by the following symptoms:
- the general condition of the cat is slightly depressed;
- sneezing, snorting, cat shakes his head, rubs his nose on his front paws;
- watery, mucous discharge from the nose, which can become purulent for 3-4 days;
- nasal outflows dry out and brown crusts can be seen on the wings of the nose;
- narrowing of the nasal passages - the cat begins to breathe through the mouth, breathing becomes deep and intermittent;
- as the disease develops, the infection can go into sinusitis, laryngotracheitis, pharyngitis and be accompanied by other lesions of the nasopharynx.
Symptoms of sinusitis:
- decreased appetite, inhibition of the general condition of the animal;
- body temperature may increase by 1-2⁰ ° C;
- most often there is a unilateral mucous or mucopurulent discharge from the nose, which is intensified by sneezing, snorting, coughing or tilting the head;
- soreness in the forehead.
With colds and viral diseases, in addition to nasal discharge, fever can occur, while the temperature can increase significantly. The area around the nose, eye is heavily contaminated with secretions. In the case of complications of diseases of the secondary microflora, inflammation passes to the trachea, bronchi, lungs.
Only the veterinarian can correctly assess the cause of the common cold, therefore it is not recommended to independently engage in diagnosis and treatment. If a cat’s common cold can be treated at home, sinusitis and viral rhinotracheitis require treatment under the strict supervision of a veterinarian.
The diagnosis is based on a history and symptoms of the disease. Depending on the severity of the condition of the animal, a blood test may be required. When making a diagnosis, special attention is paid to the possible presence of infectious or parasitic diseases. To do this, nasal discharge is sent to the laboratory to isolate the pathogen or detect sexually mature parasites and (or) their eggs.
In the treatment of nasal disease, it is first necessary to eliminate the root cause. It should be remembered that the effectiveness of treatment directly depends on the correct diagnosis.
A simple runny nose against a mild cold usually does not require cardinal treatment measures:
- To enhance immunity and overall body resistance, immunity-stimulating drugs and vitamins are prescribed to the cat.
- With abundant outflow from the nose with a wet swab, the nostrils are cleaned of mucus and dried crusts.
- 2 times a day, the nasal passages are washed with one of the solutions: 1% novocaine with adrenaline, 0.2% ethacridine, 0.5% tannin, 3% boric acid solution; 2% zinc sulfate.
- A 1% solution of methanol in fish oil is instilled into both nostrils and streptocide powder, norsulfazole is blown.
If during the first three days there is no improvement in the condition of the cat, then a course of antibiotic therapy will be necessary. Antibiotics are also used in the treatment of sinusitis, in addition, with this disease, physiotherapy is indicated. In the chronic course of sinusitis, surgery may be required.